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Slovenska rudarska poročila iz rudišča Belščica v Karavankah s preloma 18. in 19. stoletja za Sigismonda (Žiga) Zoisa. Diplomatični in kritični prepis, interpretacija v sodobni slovenščini in komentar poročil o delovanju rudnika Žirovnica, ki sta jih med letoma 1797 in 1805 pisala rudarska nadzornika Lukas in Vincenc Polc; v Dodatku Geslovnik s komentarjem.

Author: Goran Schmidt
Year: 2015

Until the end of the 18th century, there were hardly any writings in Slovene for other than administrative or liturgical purposes. However, the author of this book (‘Slovenian Mining Reports from the Ore Deposits of Mt. Belščica in the Karavanke Mountains at the Turn of the 18th and 19th Centuries for Sigismondo (Žiga) Zois’) found in the Archives of the Republic of Slovenia 482 pages of manuscript Slovenian mining reports from the ore deposits of valley Lipene and Mt. Belščica on the southern side of the western Karavanke mountains, above the city of Jesenice. The reports were written between 1788 and 1816, by the mining supervisor Lukas Polc and senior mining supervisor Vincenc Polc. Until 1788 and after 1816, such reports were written in German. Obviously, the Reports were written in the Slovenian language at the behest of the owner of these mines, the renown Italian-Slovenian enlightened mentor and patron, Freiherr Sigismondo Zois von Edelstein (Žiga Zois), who lived in Carniola, mainly at Brdo pri Kranju and in Ljubljana.

This book presents 108 reports depicting the Žirovnica mine at the ore deposits of Mt. Belščica from its opening in May 1797 until its closing in August 1805. In other words, it acquaints the reader with the precise and exhaustive “curriculum vitae” of a European mine at the turn of the 18th and the 19th centuries. The presentation is made complete with the addition of the most interesting passages from reports on mines in the immediate vicinity. Given the manifold importance of these manuscripts for Slovenian history, this book required interdisciplinary approach. In the opening Foreword, each field is therefore dedicated a special chapter.

The source is of particular interest to linguists. At first, a diplomatic transcription was required of the source, which was still written in the Bohorič alphabet (with the writing of Slovenian fricatives č, ž, š adapted 1584 to the German script by Adam Bohorič) and orthographically inconsistent. On this basis it was possible to produce an orthographically consistent (punctuation, majuscules), so-called critical transcription in the modern Gaj’s Latin alphabet (with fricatives č, ž, š). Such a form of writing is important for Slovenian linguists, by enabling the identification of the dialectal peculiarities as well as written or spoken sources of the speaker’s language. For other modern readers, however, such a record still remains largely incomprehensible, as the mining, geological and mineralogical terminology is used in correct or altered German form, in dialectal Slovene, or it is no longer in use today. For this reason, a third version is added to critical transcription: a transcription of the source using modern technical terminology, which the author named interpretation. The critical transcription and interpretation in the book are set on facing pages, allowing the reader to compare the two versions at one glance. The research path and sources for interpretation are described and listed in the appended Glossary.

Reports also constitute valuable material for geologists, as the Žirovnica mine encompassed 315 metres of horizontal and vertical polygon in an area that is still under-researched due to tectonically faulted and broken rock layers. On the basis of the Reports it is possible to conclude that the mine site, i.e. the lower part of the southern slopes of Mt. Belščica and Mt. Stol, is situated in the slip and arbitrarily mixed mineral layers and ore-bearing suites, and the mentions of gases testify to the presence of bituminous rocks.

Mining engineers will find in the Reports a most accurate possible description of the mine in the late 18th century. They depict its structure, as well as its work methods and organisation, and facilities. They provide the first descriptions of mining accidents in the Slovenian territory caused by water ingresses and gas explosions; such descriptions are rare, probably also in the wider European area. The main conclusion is that the ore in the above-described conditions was sought blindly: the history of the Žirovnica mine describes the eight years of unsuccessful explorations, and as evident from the additional material, this was not the only such case.

Table of content

483 rudarskih poročil v slovenščini v Arhivu Republike Slovenije
Značilnosti Zoisovih rudnikov in rudokopov ter spremljajočih slovenskih poročil
Poročila 1797–1805
Predzgodovina Poročil
Prvo rudarsko poročilo v slovenščini
Dosedanji omembi Poročil
Lokacije rudišč in rudnikov, omenjenih v Poročilih
Avtorja Poročil v obdobju 1797–1805
Oblika Poročil
Jezik Poročil
O diplomatičnem prepisu
O kritičnem prepisu
O interpretaciji v sodobni slovenščini in sodobni strokovni terminologiji
Informacije v Poročilih
Organizacija dela in delokrogi v rudišču Belščica
Pojmovanje časa
Tehnologija v Zoisovih karavanških rudnikih
Načrti rudišč in rudnikov
Rudniške gradnje
Odkopna tehnika
Raziskovalna dela
Obdelava rude – praženje
Količina rude
Geologija rudišča Belščica v Poročilih
Lege rudnih teles
Vdori vode
Vdori jamskih plinov
Rudnik Žirovnica
Osnovni podatki rudnika Žirovnica
Kratek življenjepis rudnika Žirovnica
Izpis omemb vdorov vode v rudnike rudišča Belščica v letih 1797–1805
Izpis omemb vdorov plina v rudnike rudišča Belščica v letih 1797–1805
Izpis opisov vdorov plina v rudnike rudišča Belščica kronološko v letih 1797–1805 v kritičnem prepisu
Kronološko razvrščeni diplomatični in kritični prepis odlomkov iz Poročil zunaj obravnavanega obdobja 1797–1805 in iz drugih rokopisov, uporabljenih v
Spremni besedi in Geslovniku
POROČILA, Lukas Polc in Vincenc Polc med letoma 1797 in 1805
Ureditev geslovnika
Kartografski viri
Strokovni sodelavci
Podnapisi slikovnega gradiva
O avtorju

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Zois in rudarstvo; Recenzije, Demokracija 27/XX, 2. 7. 2015

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historical sources
mining language


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